Tag Archives: Thriving in the Gig Economy

The Independent Contractor vs. Employee Issue Gets Kinky

Although some think whether an individual is an independent contractor or an employee is a new legal question brought about by the gig economy digital platforms like Uber, the truth of the matter is the issue has been around for decades. As I say in my new book, Thriving in the Gig Economy  due out in May , when the news of the Uber lawsuit first broke, my former CFO called me from Toronto just to reminisce about old times in the compliance wars.  It was remarkable to us, that so many people and the media for sure seemed to view the Uber situation as a new development.

Of course the employment lawyers in the crowd also appreciate how pervasive this problem has been.  In its recent blog post, Littler chose to honor April Fool's Day by recounting some of the more bizarre employment cases that occurred this year.  http://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/these-foolish-things-the-oddest-56353/,  My favorite was the case of a strip club in Ohio, where an exotic dancer sued the bar on the grounds that she should have been classified as an employee rather than as an independent contractor.

Credit J.D.S. from Shutterstock.com

There were several considerations arguing for independent contractor status.  Dancers were not paid by The Brass Pole, but rather by its patrons for individuals dances.  Dancers also made their own schedules and provided their own materials/costumes.  The bar offered no training; only experienced dancers were engaged.  Whether they were able to work for other establishments was a bit murky, but there was no explicit prohibition.  The Brass Pole did have a number of rules  the dancers needed to abide by including no chewing gum on stage, never refusing a drink and no boyfriends/spouses in the bar during the performances. http://www.lazzarolawfirm.com/Lester-opinion.pdf These rules were not meant to impose direction or control, but rather to ensure the efficient operation of the establishment.

The definition of an independent contractor, or for that matter, an employee, is never simple.  The Sixth Circuit court in Ohio used what they refer to as an "Economic Realities" test.  The six factor test, as outlined in the legal opinion in the case is based on:  "1) the permanency of the relationship between the parties; 2) the degree of skill required for the rendering of the services; 3) the worker’s investment in equipment or materials for the task; 4) the worker’s opportunity for profit or loss, depending upon his skill; ... 5) the degree of the alleged employer's right to control the manner in which the work is performed[; and] ... [6)] whether the service rendered is an integral part of the alleged employer’s business."

The first five items seemed to indicate that the dancers could be valid independent contractors. The dancers were regular, experienced and supplied their own costumes.  They determined when and how long they performed, which determined their income, and little to no control was exerted over them.  The problem, however, was whether the dancers were an integral part of the business.  Apparently the proprietor did attempt to claim that they were a bar which happened to have exotic dancers, rather than an exotic dancing locale that served drinks.  The judge didn't buy that argument and ordered a summary judgement for the plaintiffs, saying, "“[n]o reasonable juror could conclude that customers primarily came to the club for its other offerings, which included beer, liquor, and frozen burgers from Sam’s Club.”http://www.jdsupra.com/legalnews/these-foolish-things-the-oddest-56353/

At least the Brass Pole case was resolved.  The larger Uber lawsuit still has yet to be fully argued.  I for one am hopeful that it will be put to the test, because it could be this high profile case which finally puts some clarity on this very ambiguous area of the law.

The Gig Economy and the Office

Harvard Business Review published an interesting article by Professor Diane Mulcahey last week called, "Will the Gig Economy Make the Office Obsolete?" https://hbr.org/2017/03/will-the-gig-economy-make-the-office-obsolete .  The point Mulcahey makes is that when companies use independent workers  for key projects, these gig workers  are being  judged by their results; their presence or absence in a certain physical location is not germane to their performance.

What is interesting to note is the historical pattern of work locations.  Prior to the industrial revolution, work of most types  tended to be done at home.  Fishermen and soldiers are key exceptions here.  The work was not separate from life, but rather an embedded part of it.  As Alice Kessler Harris, a History Professor at Columbia put it, " the workplace was an extension of the household." http://gender.stanford.edu/news/2014/historical-view-american-workplace Professions which did have offices, i.e. doctors, were typically co-located at home. Although certain work was gender related, women tended the farm just as much as men helped with the weaving.  It was all just a part of life.

Marion McGovern

A portion of Diego Rivera's murals depicting American industrialization at the Detroit Institute of Art

But life changed with the advent of industrialization,  because the location of work shifted, with many roles requiring an onsite presences, whether at a factory, a warehouse or an office.  Along with that shift, came set hours and shifts which delineated work time. These separate  workplaces were often in conflict with  household schedules and further accelerated the segregation of work from home life.  As more women entered the work force the conflicting demands of work and household became all more acute.

However fast forward to the end of the 20th century. As the knowledge economy grew in importance, supported by technological enhancements, the time and place where work could be done became less important. With increased connectivity and advances in software and security, remote work has become commonplace. Coupling that with hard working employees who want more work life balance, many companies have made moves to reduce their physical office footprint.  Indeed, software company, Citrix, has predicted that by 2020, 70% of people would work away from the office as much as they worked at their office.

Add to this the increasing adoption as a strategic business practice of using independent consultants, high-end gig economy workers, for projects throughout the organization and the question of worker location becomes even more pertinent.  Most of these gig economy workers rate flexibility and control over their lives as key reasons for pursuing the independent career path.  In researching my upcoming book, Thriving in the Gig Economy, I read half a dozen different studies about the reasons independent consultants choose this path and flexibility is chief among them all. Whether they work at a client office, a co-working space or a home office, these professionals want be in charge,  They want the balance in life that comes from control.  They want their work to be an extension of their household just like it was 200 years ago.  As the saying goes, what comes around, goes around.

 

Talent Platforms for the upper end of the Gig Economy

Small Business Trends today had an article entitled  "20 Platforms for Workers in the Gig Economy".https://smallbiztrends.com/2017/02/gig-websites.html It was a good list, but one that was heavily skewed toward driving, leading off with Uber, Lyft and Turo.  The author also include some sites which are not gig economy sites at all, like Air BnB and Etsy.  In my upcoming book, Thriving in the Gig Economy, I differentiate between the sharing and gig economies.  The former involves  a physical asset, like renting your home.  The latter involves work of an uncertain duration performed in any field.  Moreover,  what many people do not appreciate about the Gig Economy,  is that it encompasses a wide variety of fields, not just driving, errands or delivery services.

Thriving in the Gig EconomyAs part of  the research for my book, I learned about a lot of platforms.  Some, like Tongal, https://tongal.com/who hold the Tongie Awards every year to celebrate the creative talents on their platform, I first discovered in a great book, Lead the Work. ( You can see this year's nominees on their website now. )  In many cases I met with the founders or leadership teams  of over a dozen talent platforms to  better understand the business model. These included  Experfy,  a talent platform for data scientists,  https://www.experfy.com and UpCounsel  a platform for certain types of legal expertise. https://www.upcounsel.com .  I mention these two in particular, because these were sites for which, I as a gig worker myself, would not be qualified.   However, if there was a remote chance that I was qualified, I not only tried to interview the founder, I also joined the platform.  I wanted to get a sense of the "user experience". All told, I am a participant in over a dozen high-end talent platforms right now.

It continues to be an interesting education. No site turned me down, which surprised me.  If you check out my LinkedIn page,https://www.linkedin.com/in/marionmcgovern/ I do not represent myself as a consultant, but that didn't seem to matter.  In the sites touting "experts",  I wasn't sure what qualified me, though I do know quite a bit now about the Gig Economy. Some sites, used only my LinkedIn info and asked for little else, while others tried to be far more expansive in their vetting. A few put me through additional screens; one had a requirement that I complete a confidentiality course, while another required a human on-boarding session to review the inner workings of the technology.

Two site  ignored me once I signed up, oblivious to my  lack of engagement with their platforms. Most sent some sort of newsletter, although in one case it was more of a holiday missive; I am not sure I will hear from them until Christmas Carols start again.  Several send regular project listings, and a few, a very few, send targeted projects that might appear to be meant for me - might being the operative word.

The matching process  for the high-end talent platforms is not a passive one; it requires effort on the part of the worker to make it effective.  Since virtually every site draws at least in part from a Linked In Profile, the potential matches may result from your background as represented there.  As Chair of a humanitarian NGO, ReSurge International, I lead my LinkedIn profile with that role.  Most of the platforms don't do to well differentiating governance expertise and Board roles.  Consequently, I received a projects involving setting up clean water facilities in Uganda, which is not a skill set I can offer.  But now that the book is largely complete, I can turn a bit more energy to evaluating these platforms as a discriminating user. Perhaps I could start my own Yelp category...

A Merger in the Gig Economy…Or Not

As part of my research for my new book, Thriving in the Gig Economy, which will be coming out next spring, I had the opportunity to interview Stephen DeWitt, the  CEO of WorkMarket. http://www.workmarket.com

Although it sounds banal to say it, Stephen is a visionary about the future of work and how technology will enable on-demand access to skilled workers globally  in a marketplace that many will find hard to _dsc5674imagine or even anticipate.  As I explain in my book, in today's environment, the immediacy of access to resources is highly conditioned by the skill set sought; I want my Uber driver right away, but I may be a bit disconcerted if my interim CFO showed up on my doorstep in 5 minutes.  Our mental models are not quite set at the right speed  now, for the way Stephen sees the future. Stephen sees that CFO, or chemical engineer or strategist arriving seamlessly when a company needs it  thanks to custom talent pools and the algorithms that will continue to evolve and load balance expertise levels.

As he shared with me as well as John Battelle in his great newco piece, A Total Rethink of How Work Should Work  https://shift.newco.co/a-total-rethink-of-how-work-should-work-5dc3980ea52#.76ychzmxi , to imagine the future you need to think of the futures you know.  Think Star Trek, for example, if Captain Kirk is in need of new expertise to make the next voyage, do you think he is just going to list it on LinkedIn?

Which brings me to the point of this post.  A major acquisition was finally approved last week to remarkably little fan fair, especially when compared to the press when the deal was announced. LinkedIn is now officially owned by Microsoft, an organization not known for successfully integrating acquisitions. LinkedIn is of course the largest talent marketplace  in the world, even if it doesn't operate like a digital talent platform. (With apologies, of course, to LinkedIn Profinder, which is trying. )

It has a significant role in the Gig Economy, though, since it is a key element of an independent worker's digital brand. Look at me -- I am posting this on LinkedIn in addition to my own blog as part of my own branding strategy. I even have a section in my book on how to optimize your digital image on LinkedIn. So will this primacy as a venue for independent experts to showcase expertise change in the new Microsoft world?

It is hard to say. An article on this topic by Dina Bass on Bloomberg yesterday https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-12-13/how-microsoft-and-linkedin-can-make-this-expensive-deal-work said a key to the deal is to "let LinkedIn be LinkedIn." The public plan is to keep the two companies separate and develop those ever popular "synergies" to enable skilled professionals to be more productive.  As an Apple fan who has always thought apple design far superior to Microsoft and other platforms,  that didn't seem like a natural outcome to me.  (Let's face it the Microsoft stuff never works quite as well on a mac...)

But my bigger concern came from the video conference the day they announced the deal. Microsoft CEO , Satya Nadella, said he wanted to help make the LinkedIn members more successful in their "jobs".  https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/linkedin-microsoft-changing-way-world-works-jeff-weiner In the new world of work, the one that I see and the one Stephen DeWitt sees, it isn't about "jobs" it is about the work and skill sets and managing independent careers. Hopefully the new combined Microsoft and LinkedIn leadership will see that and plan accordingly.

The Trump Administration and the Gig Economy

The co-founder of WorkMarket, https://www.workmarket.com/about#jeff-wald Jeff Wald, hosted a webinar today on what the new Trump administration will mean for the on-demand economy.  Since I differentiate the Gig Economy from  the On-Demand one in my new book, Thriving in the Gig Economy, which will be coming out next spring, I listened more for the implications for the career gig workers, experts who have chosen to create a careers as  independent workers.

With the disclaimer that no one REALLY knows what may happen, Wald's prediction was two fold - what is likely to happen in 2017 and what may happen in 2018.  Immediately after the inauguration, regulations , especially those resulting from the 2010 Obama task force meant to tackle worker misclassification would be discontinued or not enforced.  The misclassification, of course, refers to the independent contractor vs. employee issue, which I have probably blogged too much about.  ( See my post I am Uber the Uber Lawsuit ) Moreover, he thought the task force would be disbanded immediately. This could bode well for many senior consultants who would like to work independently as an independent contractor but have clients who are wary of the misclassification risk.

Wald did not think the Affordable Care Act (ACA), commonly referred to as ObamaCare would be repealed, rather he thought it would be revised into "DonaldCare", where certain elements would be maintained, like the coverage of children up to 26 on their parents' plans. The ACA has been a key enabler in the gig economy, since the ability to secure health insurance make the decision to go solo a more viable one.  Although I hope Wald is correct on this prognostication, I am withholding judgement until the Labor Secretary is named.

Perhaps the most important action, and the one which will have the least attention, is the appointment of a new Commissioner for the National Labor Relations Board. (NLRB) One of two recent NLRB decisions adversely impacted the staffing industry, by  increasing the risk of co-employment when using temporary staffing/gig workers.  A new NLRB appointee could reverse that decision, which would be a boon for temporary and specialty staffing firms.

And finally, the Supreme Court  appointment could have a major impact on the workplace. Frederick vs. the California Teachers' Association was denied a hearing in a 4 to 4 decision in June. The case involved mandatory union fees.  The tea leaves Wald reads suggests that a rehearing with a new more conservative court would strike down the mandatory fees, which would be a major blow to organized labor. Since many are suggesting the gig economy should become unionized, much like Hollywood back in the day, such an action may alter that thinking.

Looking into his crystal ball for 2018, Wald thought there could be some movement in the chronic problem of worker classification.  Trump likes to simplify complexity, and the rules governing independent contractor compliance are nothing if not complex.  Wald thought there is a chance that certain benefits, like retirement, may be unbundled from employment.  (Again something I just blogged about as well - Work, Jobs and the Gig Economy ).  Finally, tax reform will likely take until 2018, since it is a complex problem.  Again, in the interest of simplification, the new tax regulations could eliminate many of the business deduction provisions that have been a mainstay of the self-employed career consultants. That said, a lot will happen between now and then.  Time to strap on for the ride.

What is gig economy? - Definition from WhatIs.com

A gig economy is an environment in which temporary positions are common and organizations contract with independent workers for short-term engagements.
What is gig economy? - Definition from WhatIs.com

A gig economy is an environment in which temporary positions are common and organizations contract with independent workers for short-term engagements.

Work, Jobs and the Gig Economy

As I work on my book, Thriving in the Gig Economy , I have had the opportunity to talk to many experts, from CEOs to futurists about the future of work.  I was thrilled last week when one of them shared my pet peeve, one that is all the more acute in an election year --  the fact that so many Americans equate work and jobs.  Work is so much more than a job, or more precisely a "regular full-time job".  work encompasses all sorts of pursuits, from part-time work, to self-employment to gigs to volunteering.

If you look at the definition, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/work, it is "an activity in which one exerts strength or faculties to do or perform something:"  In fact in all 11 definitions cited, the word "employment" never appears.

work-and-jobs-a_18209594_fdcad04d8230cfe920d0951aeac865c14aa12b44

 

None the less, we constantly hear our politicians talking about how important it is to create jobs.Yes that is important, but as the world is changing with technology and new work models.  What is unfortunate about this focus on jobs and not work is the attachment of social infrastructure to employment. Employer provided  health and retirement benefits are great for current employees, but leave all of the other workers, from part-timers to gig workers potentially at a disadvantage.  Moreover, the employment oriented fringes may constrain an individual's entrepreneurial path; it will be tougher to become an independent consultant if the Affordable Care Act is repealed.

That said, the government has a vested interest in bolstering traditional  employment structures, and that interest is not in benefits but in taxes.  It is a lot easier to collect employment taxes from companies than from a myriad of individuals. As such, the argument that we need to revise our vision of employment, can fall on deaf ears.

Charles Handy, an Irish economist and expert in the world of work, said in his new book, The Second Curve, writes, “The strange truth is, if you have a so-called proper full-time job today, you are in the minority.  The world has changed and few have noticed.”  We need to take notice and enable opportunity accordingly.

Yet Another Research Report on the Gig Economy

Albert Einstein once said, "If we knew what we were doing we wouldn't call it research." How fitting in this case.  Yet another report came out this week estimating the size of the gig economy. Pymnts.com released their research http://www.pymnts.com/gig-economy/2016/gig-economy-growing/ done in conjunction with Hyperwallet, which attempts to define the the size of the independent work marketplace.

This is on the heels  of the recent McKinsey Global Institute  (MGI) study, "Independent Work: Choice Necessity and the Gig Economy."http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/employment-and-growth/independent-work-choice-necessity-and-the-gig-economy.  In that comprehensive report, the authors had a significant disclaimer about the problem of data collection in this area. The annual contingent labor study done by the Department of Labor was discontinued in 2005, so thee are no government statistics about participation. Various entities,including companies in the space, academics and think tanks, have launched efforts  to explore the subject.  So there is no dearth of data about the gig economy, the problem is each study has been  done with a slightly different approach. In fact the MGI study even included a great graph comparing the size estimates emerging from these disparate research projects. It tried to isolate the specific industry segment which was being addressed by the researchers.  For example, it  listed 5 different studies, including their own,  that sized the independent workforce in the US as a percentage of the working population.  The results were broad ranging,  from as little as 16% to as high as 27%

So given that the numbers don't quite jive, who is right? Since I am working on my new book, Thriving in the Gig Economy, I have been wrestling with this issue quite a bit.  I have decided that  potentially they are all right; you just need to be cognizant of how they have framed the question. MBO Partners, for example , provides the best ( and only) historical perspective, having issued its report on the State of Independence in America  for each of the last 6 years. https://www.mbopartners.com/state-of-independence/mbo-partners-state-of-independence-in-america-2016 They focus on independent consultants in the professional services space and estimate the market size at just south of 40 million participants. They define 3 primary categories of independents: full time, part time and occasional.  MGI, on the other hand, has a higher size estimate based on four categories of workers, including two groups, who are working in this way out of financial pressure rather than personal choice. They include some categories of workers, like doctors and therapists, who may or may not be captured in the MBO Partners data.

One area that has very limited data available is the use of digital talent platforms by gig workers.  The new PYMNTS report is targeted specifically at this.  In fact, they specifically don't include the group of "freelancers" who may get their work from intermediaries, like M Squared Consulting http://www.msquared.com or Business Talent Group. https://businesstalentgroup.com/business-strategy-consulting-google/?gclid=CLLwv-vy-c8CFUKTfgod6t8HGA.  Given the exclusion of this key population, the graph which showed the type of professional services procured through the digital talent marketplaces was telling.  The professional service in the highest demand was photography. The senior level independent consultants do not appear to be represented.  I have yet to comprehensively go through this report, so I can't speak to conclusions the authors may have reached.  Perhaps there will be more to come on this in the future.  At the very least, there may be more to come in my book.

 

 

The Gig Economy – A Class Act…or not…

gig economy

Since I am working on my book, Thriving in the Gig Economy, I have been paying particular attention to the various Uber  employment lawsuits.  Even though  I am focusing on the high end of the gig economy where independent consultants sell their services and intellectual capital, the commodity end of Uber drivers can't be ignored, since it seems to garner all of the headlines.

This week a rather important ruling occurred that seemed to receive very little attention, which is surprising, since it suggests Uber's independent contractor lawsuits may lose class action status.

Last week,  a Ninth Circuit panel effectively reversed a decision from 2015 . A year ago, a judge had said that that the arbitration agreement in Uber's contract with its drivers was unenforceable.  The contract was designed to say if you have any dispute with us, Uber, you need to resolve it through arbitration rather than through the courts.  In this particular case, three drivers had sued Uber for saying they violated the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) when the company ran background checks on their driving records.  The FCRA, as all recruiting managers know, is the law that requires candidates for employment authorize any  background checks.   The decision said that Uber's arbitration clauses were fair, valid and enforceable.

By asserting that the arbitration clauses are valid in this case will have implications in the attempts of some drivers to create a class action.  As an outside observer, I applaud this.  Since I have the gig economy on the brain  and am an avid Uber customer, I have taken to quizzing all of my drivers about there thoughts on the lawsuit.  I wish I had thought to jot down the results, since my sample size is now in statistically valid territory.  That said, my recollections of the results are these:

  • Only one of about 25 wanted to be an employee
  • 2-3 did not know about the lawsuit at all
  • The majority did it part time to fit their schedule , as one said to me last Sunday, "why watch a football game when I can earn some extra cash for 2 hours?"
  • Most had other jobs including teacher, masseuss, contractors, programmers, hairdressers etc.
  • A large minority also worked for the other driving services

My very unscientific conclusion then is that it is a very diverse driver pool.  A key attribute of a class action lawsuit is that the participants in the class are largely similar.  I don't know that this is the case.  It is time for the independent contractor laws to be brought into the current century in a time when the gig economy of indepndent workers of all sorts is growing.  Potentially these lawsuits facing Uber will help make that happen. .

The Sharing Economy versus the Gig Economy

gig economy

Thriving in the Gig Economy - Scholarly Research

Since I am working on a new book, Thriving in the Gig Economy, I am reading  every scholarly item I can find on new alternative marketplaces.  As such, I was thrilled when  The Future of Work Podcast (1)  recently included an interview with Arun Sundararajan,  the author of The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism.  I had read Sundararajan's book already so was eager to hear him discuss it.

I appreciated the fact that he recognized that the advent of digital platforms is really an extension of age-old marketplaces.  The fact that they now happen to be powered by technology rather than a central urban location was somewhat incidental.  Technology was able to become the purveyor of these markets in part due to the increase in trust that the medium affords.  Millenials, interestingly  enough, have grown up in an era where trust in institutions and society is at its lowest level.  (which does not bode well for the upcoming election) .  Conversely, though, they are the most likely to trust a digital platform; since they grew up in a digital age, technology can provide a layer for legitimacy and trust to this cohort, more so than it does to Gen Y or boomers.

What did not resonate with me though was the way sometimes, the gig economy was used as a proxy for the sharing economy.  With all due respect to Professor Sunderararajan, I do not see it quite the same way.  To me, although the sharing economy term is often used interchangeably with the gig economy, it is not the same.  The sharing economy refers to the economic activity generated from the sharing of physical assets on a peer-to-peer level.  The poster child for the sharing economy is AirBnB, the home sharing service.  It enables individuals to rent their property or a portion of it to people in need of a vacation rental.  Although the host may need to prepare the house for the guest, that is not the service that is being purchased.  The product is the temporary housing. By extension, the preparation of the host is not a gig, but rather his/her role to get the financial benefit from the short-term rental of physical assets.

Other assets can be involved as well. There are several peer-to-peer lending platforms, like Lending Club, where individuals can pool financial assets and make loans to individuals or enterprises in need of funds.  Share a Mortgage is a London-based start-up that allows individuals to pool resources for the purchase of real property. E Bay, of course,  is also a sharing platform, allowing individuals to sell handicrafts or grandma’s antique dining room set.

There is some intersection with the gig economy when the asset being shared is in part intangible. SofaConcerts in Hamburg, Germany for example, allows people to host musicians in their home.  The home is being shared, but the experience, the performance, is also shared. Similarly, EatWith in San Francisco, allows hosts to open their homes to put on a dinner party.  The home and meal are shared, but the host has done the work to prepare the meal. The host could be an expert chef, so in that sense expertise is being purchased.

That said, the key distinction between the sharing and gig economy is that the former involves the purchase of a service or experience that involves a physical asset. At the high value end of the gig economy, the transaction can include an intangible asset in terms of the intellectual property that is developed on the gig, but a physical asset isn’t involved.

Despite our difference in perspective on this, I heartily recommend "The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism"; it is a good read.

 

I welcome your thoughts. 

 

Matchmakers in the Gig Economy

erasmus

Matchmakers and the Gig Economy

On my way to Rotterdam to see my daughter compete in the World Rowing Championships, (Go USA! Sorry I digress...) I finished the book, "Matchmakers, The New Economics of Multi-sided Platforms" by David Evans and Richard Smallensee. Although I wished they had spent a bit more time on talent marketplaces in the gig economy, they provided wonderful examples of successes and failures in the new world of two-sided digital platforms. One point in their conclusion I particularly appreciated was this:
 "2.    A lot of what the new market darlings do is old stuff. They just use technology to improve on things that other matchmakers have done for many years. "

How right they are!

In my research for "Thriving in the Gig Economy", I have met many talent platform entrepreneurs.  I think many of them have been surprised at how facile I am with the issues they face as they grow their business. I have been out of my firm for several years now, and my firm was. It a technology platform. But we were - and it is today - matchmakers. As such the challenges a digital platform may encounter when recruiting talent, finding consultants or establishing contract terms are not dissimilar from those I faced over the years.

They conclude with the fact that passed on the long history of matchmakers, dating back to the Greeks and the agora, the current crop of digital platform firms will not be the only ones to  disrupt economies.  In fact another quote I liked is this

"With all due respect to the brilliant entrepreneurs behind today’s unicorns and yesterday’s huge IPOs, the telegraph was a far more important multisided platform in terms of its impact on the global economy than anything the Internet has yet spawned."

They got that right too. On the whole, I solidly endorse this book. I welcome your thoughts on it and the gig economy.

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